Sand Cone Test ( Field Density Test By Sand Replacement Method)

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The sand cone method is used for field density test in highway construction. In the field,
the dry density test is performed to check the compaction of layers. Compaction
is most beneficial for the preparation of sub base grade and different pavement layers
and in the production of embankment in order to increase the steadiness and
to lower settlement. In field compaction, the compacting moisture content is
first controlled at ideal moisture content and the adequacy of rolling or compaction
is controlled through testing the dry density accomplished and comparing with
the maximum dry density.

Type 1 layer-95%
ABC layer-100%
Road shoulder- 98%
Testing procedure
The weight of empty sand cone is estimated and after that loaded with dry sand and
weighted. The dirt exhumed from the gap is gathered and weighted. Subsequent to
weighting, an example of soil is taken to decide its water content. The sand cone is set
on the test hole with the assistance of the base plate and sand is permitted to keep
running by opening the control value.
At the point when the sand stop running, the valve is shut and the cone is weighted
with the rest of the sand. At that point, the dry density of soil can be measured and the
present of otherwise of the compaction is a failure. At that point, the compacted place
to be re-compacted and re-test.
Calculation
The volume of the hole = Mass of sand in hole/Density of used sand.
Wet density = Mass of wet excavated soil/Volume of hole
Dry density = Wet density × 100%/ Moisture content of soil + 100
Degree of compaction = Dry density × 100%/Maximun dry density

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